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Bottled KnowledgeWelcome to a wealth of brewing knowledge! Our new and improved blog has 500+ articles for you to peruse or filter to exactly what you're looking for. Whether you're just starting out or looking to raise your game, we've got you covered with info from experts.

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November 04, 2019

Instructions on How to Make Hard Cider

Brewing hard cider from nonalcoholic, or “sweet” cider is a simple process, and the inebriating end product is as delicious as it is discombobulating. Here are the steps you’ll follow to make hard cider of your own.    Checklist of Cider Brewing Equipment 5 Gal. Stainless Steel brewing pot L..... Read More

Brewing hard cider from nonalcoholic, or “sweet” cider is a simple process, and the inebriating end product is as d..... Read More

Featured

August 01, 2020

Adding Pumpkin to Beer

It is very easy to overpower a beer with these spices, and it is easier to add more than take some out. Fine-tune the spice level at bottling and enjoy!.. Read More

It is very easy to overpower a beer with these spices, and it is easier to add more than take some out. Fine-tune the..... Read More

Featured

August 01, 2020

What is an Oktoberfest Beer?

A gold to amber colored, malty, German-style lager beer, with moderate hop bitterness. Also sometimes called Marzen. This famous German style is stronger than an everyday lager and is the fuel for Oktoberfest celebrations all over the world. The original pre-industrial Oktoberfest was brewed at t..... Read More

A gold to amber colored, malty, German-style lager beer, with moderate hop bitterness. Also sometimes called Marzen. ..... Read More

Featured

October 25, 2019

What is Kombucha?

Some call it a magical probiotic potion. Others just think of it as a tasty fizzy drink. Whatever the reason for drinking it, this ancient recipe is still a solid favorite to millions of people around the world. With a funky name paired with an even tangier flavor, making kombucha at home is ea..... Read More

Some call it a magical probiotic potion. Others just think of it as a tasty fizzy drink. Whatever the reason for dr..... Read More

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August 12, 2020

How to Make a Kettle Sour Beer

What is a Sour Beer? Sour beers are usually made by introducing wild yeast or bacteria to already fermented beer via barrels or by cooling finished wort in vessels called coolships... Read More

What is a Sour Beer? Sour beers are usually made by introducing wild yeast or bacteria to already fermented beer via ..... Read More

Featured

October 25, 2019

Advantages of Conical Fermenters

A conical fermenter will make brewing beer a lot easier. The biggest advantage is that racking becomes a very easy task. Once your beer recipe is done fermenting, the conical has a valve at the bottom that allows you to transfer the beer to the secondary using gravity. You simply place your carb..... Read More

A conical fermenter will make brewing beer a lot easier. The biggest advantage is that racking becomes a very easy t..... Read More

Featured

November 05, 2019

Instructions on How to Grow Hops

Growing hop rhizomes is truly something special. Being able to add an ingredient that you’ve grown yourself is not something that every homebrewer can claim. Plus, you can’t get any fresher then going out in your back yard and picking your own hops. Let’s show you the process of planting and car..... Read More

Growing hop rhizomes is truly something special. Being able to add an ingredient that you’ve grown yourself is not s..... Read More

September 01, 2020

How to Use Oak Chips and Oak Cubes

A good proportion of oak chips for home use is 3 grams of chips per liter. To use oak chips, sanitize them in a 1 gallon of water with 2 oz of metabisulfite dissolved in it. Let them soak for 20 mins then strain with a sanitizer strainer and add to your wine. Add oak chips to your wine after it h..... Read More

A good proportion of oak chips for home use is 3 grams of chips per liter. To use oak chips, sanitize them in a 1 gal..... Read More

August 25, 2020

Oaking Wine with Barrels, Spirals, Cubes, and Chips

Oak adds a compelling complexity to wine. You should make sure the kind of wine you want to make is well suited for oak since it is more expensive and more work. For example, just about any high tannin red wine will benefit. Many whites such as chardonnay or Sauvignon blanc will benefit as well...... Read More

Oak adds a compelling complexity to wine. You should make sure the kind of wine you want to make is well suited for ..... Read More

August 17, 2020

How to Make Pretzels from Spent Grains

Turn Your Spent Grain into Savory, Heart-Healthy Pretzels... Read More

Turn Your Spent Grain into Savory, Heart-Healthy Pretzels... Read More

August 15, 2020

How to Care for an Oak Barrel

Welcome to the amazing world of Barrel ownership! With your wooden friend you are entering a new and exciting level of wine making. With due diligence and proper up keep of your barrel it will serve you in your wine making for years to come. First let’s get to know your barrel with a little anato..... Read More

Welcome to the amazing world of Barrel ownership! With your wooden friend you are entering a new and exciting level o..... Read More

August 01, 2020

Does Wine Need to Age?

Modern society loves new things. The latest smartphone, the current fashion, the new movie release, we all want to be up to date and fresh. But fresh isn't always better. On the other hand, it isn't necessarily worse. Fresh is just 'fresh' and quality comes from other sources than mere newness ..... Read More

Modern society loves new things. The latest smartphone, the current fashion, the new movie release, we all want to b..... Read More

July 30, 2020

Using Oak Spirals for Oak Aging Wine

Until recently, vintners had little choice when it came to oaking a wine. They simply placed the wine in an oak barrel and waited until the desired taste and aroma were achieved. About the only control they had was the type of oak used, the age and size of the barrel, and whether the barrel was ..... Read More

Until recently, vintners had little choice when it came to oaking a wine. They simply placed the wine in an oak barr..... Read More

July 28, 2020

Glass Carboy Secondary Fermenters

Our 1, 3, 5, 6, and 6.5 gallon glass carboys are great sanitary vessels for secondary fermentation and maturation of your wine, beer, meads, or other fermented beverages. They resist scratches and do not retain any flavors or odors. They are also more easily kept clean and sanitized than plastic ..... Read More

Our 1, 3, 5, 6, and 6.5 gallon glass carboys are great sanitary vessels for secondary fermentation and maturation of ..... Read More

July 25, 2020

How to Add Fruit Flavor to Beer

It used to be that fruit was only found in a few specific styles of beer, such as a belgian lambic. But thanks to the tinkering nature of craft brewers and homebrewers, it’s become increasingly popular over the years. Nobody ever heard of a blueberry stout or a raspberry wheat until the mid ‘90’s..... Read More

It used to be that fruit was only found in a few specific styles of beer, such as a belgian lambic. But thanks to the..... Read More

July 25, 2020

How To Make Hard Seltzer

Hard seltzer is hot right now and it’s a breeze to make. Having variety in your cellar is key to keeping everyone happy and a hard seltzer is pretty darn tasty on a hot day... Read More

Hard seltzer is hot right now and it’s a breeze to make. Having variety in your cellar is key to keeping everyone hap..... Read More

July 15, 2020

How to Fix a Stuck Beer Fermentation

By definition, a stuck fermentation is a fermentation that has stopped before all the available sugar in the beer has been converted to alcohol and CO2. If the bubbles in your airlock slow down before your beer has reached its final gravity, you may have a stuck fermentation. Were you to give up ..... Read More

By definition, a stuck fermentation is a fermentation that has stopped before all the available sugar in the beer has..... Read More

July 13, 2020

All Grain Brewing

Welcome to the world of all grain brewing! In this video, we’ll give you a crash course of everything you need to know to get started all grain brewing. We’ll talk about the equipment you need and how you use it to make beer. We’ll be using a gravity-fed cooler brewing system setup for the mash ..... Read More

Welcome to the world of all grain brewing! In this video, we’ll give you a crash course of everything you need to kn..... Read More

May 04, 2020

How to Make Wine

If you’re looking to make wine, it’s actually quite easy to get started with wine recipe kits. Using wine kits is the best place to start your wine making journey because kits simplify the wine making process from grape to glass. Wine kits allow you to create amazing wine with much less wine mak..... Read More

If you’re looking to make wine, it’s actually quite easy to get started with wine recipe kits. Using wine kits is th..... Read More

April 30, 2020

How to Sweeten Wine

What Can I Use to Sweeten my Wine? So, you have opened the first wine bottle from a new batch, and it's too dry for your liking. It isn’t unusual for a homemade wine to be a little dry because we simply add wine yeast and let it ferment. A winery will take measurements throughout the fermentation..... Read More

What Can I Use to Sweeten my Wine? So, you have opened the first wine bottle from a new batch, and it's too dry for y..... Read More

November 05, 2019

How to Keg and Carbonate Homemade Soda

Kegging is great for soda, seeing that the kegs a brewer uses for beer used to contain soda. We will point out that it is a good idea to dedicate a keg solely for soda as the soda flavor does tend to work itself into the plastic o-rings inside the keg. If you do want to switch back to beer, just ..... Read More

Kegging is great for soda, seeing that the kegs a brewer uses for beer used to contain soda. We will point out that i..... Read More

November 05, 2019

How to Use a Counter Pressure Bottle Filler

As with most homebrewing activities, the first step is to make sure all your equipment and bottles are clean and sanitized. The counter pressure bottle filler may be sanitized easily by opening all of the valves and submerging it in a bucket of sanitizer solution. Let it sit in the solution for ..... Read More

As with most homebrewing activities, the first step is to make sure all your equipment and bottles are clean and san..... Read More

November 05, 2019

How to Make Wine From Grapes

Here is a checklist of everything you will need to make wine from grapes: Fresh or Frozen Grapes Acid Testing Kit Tartaric Acid Hydrometer Yeast Yeast Nutrient Wine Cap Punch Down Tool Ratchet Press Floating Thermometer 7.9 Gallon Plastic Fermenter 6 Gallon Carboy w/ a Stopper and Airlock Rackin..... Read More

Here is a checklist of everything you will need to make wine from grapes: Fresh or Frozen Grapes Acid Testing Kit Ta..... Read More

November 05, 2019

What to do with Hop Rhizomes

Background Info What are hop rhizomes? Hop rhizomes are small roots that are cut from the main root system of a mature female hop plant. And a hop plant is a perennial plant that produces little cones or flowers called hops, which are one of the main ingredients in brewing beer. In the springtim..... Read More

Background Info What are hop rhizomes? Hop rhizomes are small roots that are cut from the main root system of a matu..... Read More

November 04, 2019

What is Dry Hopping?

Dry hopping is the process of adding hops, usually in secondary, to a beer to add more of a hop aroma to your beer. Traditionally, dry hopping is done in beer styles like pale ales and I.P.A.’s, but people are utilizing this process in many other styles as well. Since you are not boiling the hop..... Read More

Dry hopping is the process of adding hops, usually in secondary, to a beer to add more of a hop aroma to your beer. ..... Read More

October 29, 2019

Apple Wine Recipe (1 Gallon)

1 Gallon Apple Wine Recipe.. Read More

1 Gallon Apple Wine Recipe.. Read More

October 29, 2019

How to Improve Your Red Wine

Wine can, in fact, make itself, but it's up to us to make great wines and showcase the quality of the fruit we use. Step one is ultimately finding sound, well grow grapes. Step two is deciding what style of wine you wish to have in your glass once everything is said and done... Read More

Wine can, in fact, make itself, but it's up to us to make great wines and showcase the quality of the fruit we use. S..... Read More

October 28, 2019

How to Make Kombucha

Step-by-Step Kombucha Making Instructions: Add 1 quart of water to your pot and bring to a boil. When a boil is reached, turn off the burner. Add 2 Tbsp of the loose leaf tea to the tea ball. Place the tea ball into the water and steep for 6 minutes. Remove the tea ball. Add 1 cup of raw cane s..... Read More

Step-by-Step Kombucha Making Instructions: Add 1 quart of water to your pot and bring to a boil. When a boil is rea..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Titret Kit

A titret kit is used to measure the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a wine. Sulfur dioxide has two main purposes when it comes to the storage of a wine. One purpose is it is an anti-microbial agent. This means that the SO2 will curtail the growth of undesirable yeast and bacteria. The second pu..... Read More

A titret kit is used to measure the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a wine. Sulfur dioxide has two main purposes wh..... Read More

October 25, 2019

When to Throw Away SCOBY

With proper care, SCOBYs can last many generations. But when you see excessive, dark yeast growth on a SCOBY layer, or if it starts producing Kombucha that tastes bad or overly acidic, it’s time to get a new one. New kombucha recipes can be made... Read More

With proper care, SCOBYs can last many generations. But when you see excessive, dark yeast growth on a SCOBY layer, o..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is a SCOBY Hotel?

The more Kombucha you brew, the more layers of SCOBY you’ll produce. Giving SCOBY away to friends is a great way to create Kombucha converts. But what if you don’t have a booch-curious friend standing by? That’s where the SCOBY Hotel comes in handy. It’s a safe, healthy place to store your spare ..... Read More

The more Kombucha you brew, the more layers of SCOBY you’ll produce. Giving SCOBY away to friends is a great way to c..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mother SCOBY and Baby SCOBY

First off, Congrats! If your mother SCOBY is healthy, it should produce a brand-new, bouncing baby SCOBY with each batch. That’s a lot of offspring. Here’s how to keep your SCOBY happy and healthy. Typically, the baby SCOBY forms on the surface of your Kombucha tea, eventually covering it and mer..... Read More

First off, Congrats! If your mother SCOBY is healthy, it should produce a brand-new, bouncing baby SCOBY with each ba..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What to do with Floaters or Sludge in Kombucha

That is entirely up to you. They won’t hurt you if you drink them, so if you’re feeling adventurous, go ahead and send them down the hatch. Some people claim that these concentrated, bonus blobs are even more beneficial to your health than drinking plain ol’ filtered Kombucha. But if you just can..... Read More

That is entirely up to you. They won’t hurt you if you drink them, so if you’re feeling adventurous, go ahead and sen..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Does Kombucha Expire or Go Bad?

Kombucha has a lengthy shelf life due to its high pH levels, which keep microorganisms at bay. But you may notice Kombucha that is stored for a month or more can taste different or not as fresh, due to continuous fermentation, even when stored in the fridge. Best to drink it when fresh to enjoy t..... Read More

Kombucha has a lengthy shelf life due to its high pH levels, which keep microorganisms at bay. But you may notice Kom..... Read More

October 25, 2019

When is Kombucha Ready to Drink?

Brew times vary depending on the temperature. In warm weather, or if you can keep your booch around 78-82 degrees, you may see your first signs of a “baby” SCOBY forming on top of your brew within 4-7 days. With colder temps it may take weeks. Since brew times can vary from 1-4 weeks depending on..... Read More

Brew times vary depending on the temperature. In warm weather, or if you can keep your booch around 78-82 degrees, yo..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Should SCOBY Look and Behave?

When you receive your SCOBY, it will look like a flat, rubbery disc or segment, floating in rich Kombucha starter liquid. Once you add it to your sweetened tea, it may sink or float or stand on end. And, depending on the temperature, within 7-10 days, your tea should develop a transparent film on..... Read More

When you receive your SCOBY, it will look like a flat, rubbery disc or segment, floating in rich Kombucha starter liq..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hydrometer

A hydrometer is a floating instrument for determining specific gravities; especially of liquids and solutions. It is usually a hollow glass or metal instrument, weighted at one end so as to float upright. The stem of the instrument is graduated so as to indicate the gravity of the liquid. Many in..... Read More

A hydrometer is a floating instrument for determining specific gravities; especially of liquids and solutions. It is ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Clean Homebrew Kegs

Properly caring for and cleaning your homebrew kegs is vital to making sure your beer is at its best time after time... Read More

Properly caring for and cleaning your homebrew kegs is vital to making sure your beer is at its best time after time... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Insulate Tap Lines

If you plan to run draft (tap) lines from a keg in a refrigerator to a tap some distance from the refrigerator, for example to a bar, you are likely to run into issues with foamy beer. If foamy beer is an issue for you, the cause is likely due to beer warming up in your draft lines. As the temper..... Read More

If you plan to run draft (tap) lines from a keg in a refrigerator to a tap some distance from the refrigerator, for e..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Bittering Hops

Beer hops used early in the boil to impart bitterness. They do not generally impart much flavor or aroma... Read More

Beer hops used early in the boil to impart bitterness. They do not generally impart much flavor or aroma... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Adjust the pH of a Mash

If the pH of the mash is too low (too acidic) the addition of Calcium Carbonate will work well to raise it. In some cases, especially if you are making a very dark beer such as a Stout or Porter, you may have to settle for a mash pH as low as 5.0, but under no circumstance should you add more tha..... Read More

If the pH of the mash is too low (too acidic) the addition of Calcium Carbonate will work well to raise it. In some c..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hop Jack

Another term for a hop strainer... Read More

Another term for a hop strainer... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Many Kegs of Beer Can be Dispensed With a 5 lb. CO2 Tank?

It depends on a few factors. If you are using the CO2 only to dispense the beer, not to carbonate it, you may get as many as thirty 5 gallon Cornelius kegs out of one 5 lb. CO2 cylinder. However, most homebrewers are also using CO2 to force carbonate their brew, so this brings it down to around t..... Read More

It depends on a few factors. If you are using the CO2 only to dispense the beer, not to carbonate it, you may get as ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Base Malt

Malt such as pale malt that serves as the "backbone" of the beer, as well as the main sugar source for fermentation... Read More

Malt such as pale malt that serves as the "backbone" of the beer, as well as the main sugar source for fermentation... Read More

October 25, 2019

Gyle

Gyle is a portion of unfermented beer wort that is reserved for or added to finished beer for condition (carbonation). What you can do is save a measured amount of your fresh unfermented sterile wort and store it in a sterilized, sealed container in your refrigerator. The gyle should be taken fro..... Read More

Gyle is a portion of unfermented beer wort that is reserved for or added to finished beer for condition (carbonation)..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wine Cork Sizes

Cork size can play a huge role on how long your wine is able to be stored because the size of the cork will determine how much air is allowed to transfer over time. What a lot of wine makers don’t realize is that you do want slight amounts of air to come in contact with the wine to allow the wine..... Read More

Cork size can play a huge role on how long your wine is able to be stored because the size of the cork will determine..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make Mozzarella Cheese

Here’s a checklist of everything you’ll need to make your own delicious mozzarella cheese at home. Cheese Salt Tablet Vegetable Rennet Cheese Cloth Laboratory Thermometer Stainless Steel Skimmer Citric Acid 12" Curd Knife 6 to 8 quart Stainless steel pot (Aluminum or cast iron will not work) 2 ..... Read More

Here’s a checklist of everything you’ll need to make your own delicious mozzarella cheese at home. Cheese Salt Table..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Bladder Press

The Bladder Press was designed to improve the traditional wooden-basket ratchet-style press and has quickly become the preferred method for juice extraction. A rubber bladder expands from the stem outward using water pressure—pressing the fruit against the sides of the cage. This style of pressin..... Read More

The Bladder Press was designed to improve the traditional wooden-basket ratchet-style press and has quickly become th..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Long is the Fermentation Process?

The time a beer takes to ferment will definitely vary depending on many factors: whether you’re brewing an ale or a lager, what style you’re brewing, the gravity of the brew, and the yeast you’ll be using. The recipe you’re using may have specific instructions on the time you should leave the bee..... Read More

The time a beer takes to ferment will definitely vary depending on many factors: whether you’re brewing an ale or a l..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make Cheese

How is home cheese making different from commercial? Home cheese making differs from commercial cheese making in scale and in the need to produce exact duplicate products day after day for retail markets. Commercial cheese makers employ the same raw ingredients as home cheese makers, but they mu..... Read More

How is home cheese making different from commercial? Home cheese making differs from commercial cheese making in sca..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Fruit Wine Making Equipment List

The equipment needed to make Wine From Fruit is very similar to the equipment that you need to make Wine From Concentrate, so if you already have that equipment you will need very little else. We provide a complete list of all the equipment you will need to make fruit wine below, but keep in mind..... Read More

The equipment needed to make Wine From Fruit is very similar to the equipment that you need to make Wine From Concent..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Grow Grapes

Introduction Planting and growing your own grapes for home winemaking can be one of the most rewarding steps in a home vintner’s process. With a little planning, education and luck, one can produce enough grapes to keep your household in wine for the whole following year. People have been growing..... Read More

Introduction Planting and growing your own grapes for home winemaking can be one of the most rewarding steps in a hom..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Refractometer

Refractometers are a great tool to help determine the amount of sugars in your fruit. Typically, these units are used for measuring grapes, but can also be used for other fruits, and can be used similar to a hydrometer. What Does A Refractometer Do, and How Does It Work? A refractometer allows th..... Read More

Refractometers are a great tool to help determine the amount of sugars in your fruit. Typically, these units are used..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cleaning Carboys and Bottles

Carboys Carboys are a bit of a challenge to get clean. Especially if you’ve had a very active fermentation, or if your beer was in the carboy for a long time. Midwest offers many ways to help you get them clean. The carboy brush that comes in the equipment kits that we sell will work well if you’..... Read More

Carboys Carboys are a bit of a challenge to get clean. Especially if you’ve had a very active fermentation, or if you..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is a Wort Chiller?

A wort chiller is a device that allows the homebrewer to bring boiling wort down to yeast pitching temperature in a fraction of the time an ice bath takes. Why is a wort chiller so important? Why do I need one? It is very important to cool your wort to below 80 degrees as quickly as possible afte..... Read More

A wort chiller is a device that allows the homebrewer to bring boiling wort down to yeast pitching temperature in a f..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Threaded and Barbed Keg Fittings

The quick disconnects with 1/4"" barbed fittings are pretty straight forward. You connect them to your liquid or gas tubing by clamping them down with an ear (5183, 5184, 5179) or SS tubing clamp (5182) as a more permanent, single purpose use. The threaded fittings and barbed swivel nuts allow fo..... Read More

The quick disconnects with 1/4"" barbed fittings are pretty straight forward. You connect them to your liquid or gas ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Ratchet Press

Our Italian made ratchet presses are very simple to use once you understand how they work. We’ll break it down for you here step-by-step. These instructions are for any of our ratchet presses, but note that the large ratchet presses (#40 and greater) have 2 ‘gears’. They have inner and outer slot..... Read More

Our Italian made ratchet presses are very simple to use once you understand how they work. We’ll break it down for yo..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make Cheddar Cheese

First, you’ll need some equipment. You may have some of these items around the house, or see our Cheese Making Supplies. The items you'll need are listed below: Hard Cheese Mold Vegetable Rennet Tablets Cheese Cloth Mesophilic Culture 12” Curd Knife Laboratory Thermometer Cheese Salt Calcium Chl..... Read More

First, you’ll need some equipment. You may have some of these items around the house, or see our Cheese Making Suppli..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hot Break

Material which precipitates out of the wort during the boil, consisting primarily of proteins and tannins. One of the components of trub. Hot break is generally removed prior to fermentation... Read More

Material which precipitates out of the wort during the boil, consisting primarily of proteins and tannins. One of the..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Homebrew Equipment Cleansers and Sanitizers

Cleaning and sanitizing are two different things. Cleaning is the process of removing soils and oils and minerals from your equipment. There are two methods of cleaning homebrewing equipment: manual and soaking. Sanitizing means to reduce the amounts of bacteria and microorganisms to levels so th..... Read More

Cleaning and sanitizing are two different things. Cleaning is the process of removing soils and oils and minerals fro..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Long Does Homebrew Last in a Keg?

Quick answer: probably a lot longer than you’ll be able to keep yourself from drinking it all. Long answer: If dispensing with CO2, and maintained at the proper temperature (35-43 °F) and pressure (10-15 psi), homebrew will remain fresh for at least 6 months... Read More

Quick answer: probably a lot longer than you’ll be able to keep yourself from drinking it all. Long answer: If dispen..... Read More

October 25, 2019

DMS- (Dimethyl Sulfide)

An off-flavor is excessive amounts that resembles the aroma or flavor of canned corn/cooked vegetables... Read More

An off-flavor is excessive amounts that resembles the aroma or flavor of canned corn/cooked vegetables... Read More

October 25, 2019

Esters

The "fruity" flavor or aroma most commonly found in ales. Created from the interaction between acids and alcohol... Read More

The "fruity" flavor or aroma most commonly found in ales. Created from the interaction between acids and alcohol... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is a Scoville Unit and How is it Measured?

Hot sauces are made from chili peppers, so it's only natural that both hot sauces and chili peppers follow the same units of heat measurement, which is call the Scoville unit. The Scoville unit was named for Wilbur Scoville in 1912. At the time, he worked for a pharmaceutical company named Parke-..... Read More

Hot sauces are made from chili peppers, so it's only natural that both hot sauces and chili peppers follow the same u..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Best Home Brewing Books

Most people that get into homebrewing want to learn more about this fantastic hobby. There are several books out there, but which one(s) are right for you? Midwest has a book to offer any homebrewer at any skill level. We also carry more specific books, such as brewing lagers or belgians. Perhaps..... Read More

Most people that get into homebrewing want to learn more about this fantastic hobby. There are several books out ther..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make Homemade Soda

If you can boil water, you can make soda. Seriously, it is that easy. Midwest offers many different soda extracts so you're able to find a flavor that you like. Once you have the equipment needed (and many homebrewers/winemakers have all of this stuff already), just pick out an extract. Then all ..... Read More

If you can boil water, you can make soda. Seriously, it is that easy. Midwest offers many different soda extracts so ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Carbonate Beer in 15 Minutes

Please note: This is a quick and dirty method for force carbonation. Read our instructions on Force Carbonating Beer for complete instructions for the slow and steady method. When using force carbonation, you can carbonate a beer in 1 5minutes, but there is a draw back. When you carbonate a beer ..... Read More

Please note: This is a quick and dirty method for force carbonation. Read our instructions on Force Carbonating Beer ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Roast Coffee Beans

Roasting coffee at home is fun and easy to learn. In no time you’ll be enjoying some of the most delicious coffee you’ve ever tasted, rivaling even that of your local coffee shop. Roasting time may vary slightly depending on the roaster you have and the level of roast you’re aiming for. Consult y..... Read More

Roasting coffee at home is fun and easy to learn. In no time you’ll be enjoying some of the most delicious coffee you..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Equipment Needed to Make Wine

You’ve made the decision to make wine, but want to know what type of equipment you need. We will give you a list of equipment to make things easier for you. Midwest also offers complete wine making kits that can make the process easier if you are just getting into wine making. For those that have..... Read More

You’ve made the decision to make wine, but want to know what type of equipment you need. We will give you a list of e..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cold Break

Materials that precipitate out of the wort when it is chilled, consisting primarily of proteins and tannins. One of the components of trub. Some experts claim that carrying at least some of the cold break over into the fermenter is beneficial, because it acts as a yeast nutrient... Read More

Materials that precipitate out of the wort when it is chilled, consisting primarily of proteins and tannins. One of t..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mashing

Mashing is when you use malts that have diastatic power to actually convert starches into fermentable sugars. The key is to use a prescribed amount of water at a prescribed temperature, and the proper amount of malt with diastatic power to convert. You must have base malt for this process, or mal..... Read More

Mashing is when you use malts that have diastatic power to actually convert starches into fermentable sugars. The key..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is Diacetyl?

Tasting Diacetyl Go to the grocery store and purchase a bottle of imitation butter flavor, usually in the spice section, and two cans of light beer. You want to use beer packaged in cans to ensure that it has not been exposed to light, which causes beer to skunk. Chill the beers to about 45 °F. ..... Read More

Tasting Diacetyl Go to the grocery store and purchase a bottle of imitation butter flavor, usually in the spice sect..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Full Boil vs Partial Boil

A full boil means that you are boiling the full amount of wort—in most cases, 5.5-6 gallons, to allow for boil-off and fermentation waste. Many homebrewers do nothing but a partial boil and have great success. However, you can have a bit more control over many aspects by boiling the full 5 gallon..... Read More

A full boil means that you are boiling the full amount of wort—in most cases, 5.5-6 gallons, to allow for boil-off an..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cleaning vs Sanitizing Winemaking Equipment

90% of all winemaking failures can be traced to a lapse in cleaning or sanitization and yes, they are two different things Cleaning chemicals remove visible dirt and residue from your equipment. Some good cleaners are: B-Brite, One Step, PBW, and Easy Clean. Sanitizing is treating your equipment ..... Read More

90% of all winemaking failures can be traced to a lapse in cleaning or sanitization and yes, they are two different t..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Increase Attenuation

The most important factor in increasing your attenuation is yeast. You want to make sure you pitch an adequate amount of healthy yeast for the beer you are making as well as selecting a highly attenuating yeast strain. This generally means using liquid yeast as most dry yeast strains available ar..... Read More

The most important factor in increasing your attenuation is yeast. You want to make sure you pitch an adequate amount..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Low Efficiency on All Grain Batch

There are several reasons why an all-grain batch may turn out with a low efficiency; listed below are a few of the most common. The water was not the correct temperature. When it comes to all grain brewing it is very important to make sure you are at the correct temperature during the mash. The ..... Read More

There are several reasons why an all-grain batch may turn out with a low efficiency; listed below are a few of the mo..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Possible Mold in Homebrew

Seeing white blotches or what looks like spiderwebs in your homebrew? White blotches do not mean you necessarily have a problem. There are two main types of blotches that brewers have to worry about. As for the explanations, we have good news for some and bad news for others. If you just have som..... Read More

Seeing white blotches or what looks like spiderwebs in your homebrew? White blotches do not mean you necessarily have..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wine Bottle Types

There are a lot of different choices available when it comes to the wine bottle. You have clear, amber, green, blue, frosted white or red for color choices. Then the bottles come in punted, semi punted, or no punt. What is a winemaker to do? Go with what you want to use. Yes, the bottle color and..... Read More

There are a lot of different choices available when it comes to the wine bottle. You have clear, amber, green, blue, ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Wax to Seal Wine Bottles

Use an old soup can: Take the label off and clean it out thoroughly. Pour 1/2 a bag of bottle wax into the soup can and place it in a saucepan that contains 3 inches of water. Heat the water until the wax is melted. Carefully dip the wine bottle into the wax. When you are done, simply cool the wa..... Read More

Use an old soup can: Take the label off and clean it out thoroughly. Pour 1/2 a bag of bottle wax into the soup can a..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Bottle Wine

So you are ready to bottle your wine? Great. Bottling wine is very easy to do, but there are a few things to know to make sure your wine will last for a long time. First, here’s a list of everything you’ll need to bottle your wine: Auto Siphon - 5/16" Racking Cane Bottle Filler About 30 750 ml Wi..... Read More

So you are ready to bottle your wine? Great. Bottling wine is very easy to do, but there are a few things to know to ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Screw Cap Bottles and Wine

Sure! Studies are finding that in many ways, screw capped wines are actually better than natural cork and synthetic corks. The number one reason to use screw caps, is that you will not encounter any wine that has "cork taint," developed from a fungus that grows on corks and spoils wine. Studies a..... Read More

Sure! Studies are finding that in many ways, screw capped wines are actually better than natural cork and synthetic c..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Shrink Caps on Wine and Beer Bottles

After all of your bottles have been safely filled and corked, you can choose to put heat-shrinkable capsules (shrink-caps) over the neck of the bottle. While not necessary to preserve the wine, they give a nice finished look to your bottles, and when coordinated with labels give your wine a profe..... Read More

After all of your bottles have been safely filled and corked, you can choose to put heat-shrinkable capsules (shrink-..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Dispense a Stout such as Guinness

If it is that cool cascading effect you are looking for, you need to do a nitrogen draw. Nitrogenous beers need to be dispensed with a Stout-type faucet, a 25% CO2/75% Nitrogen gas blend and a dispense pressure of 30-40 Lbs. The unique Stout faucet has a built in stainless steel restriction plate..... Read More

If it is that cool cascading effect you are looking for, you need to do a nitrogen draw. Nitrogenous beers need to be..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Beer Keg Tubing Size

For most homebrewing kegging setups, we recommend 5 to 6 feet of 3/16"" hose. This diameter and length is roughly the amount you will want to use to maintain proper carbonation levels in your beer, and to pour a proper pint without too much or too little foam when you have your CO2 regulator set ..... Read More

For most homebrewing kegging setups, we recommend 5 to 6 feet of 3/16"" hose. This diameter and length is roughly the..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Gas Regulator

Make sure the regulator is securely attached to the gas cylinder with a CO2 gasket. Close the shut-off valve on output port of the regulator. Open the valve on the gas cylinder all the way. Turn the regulator adjustment, screw clockwise until the desired pressure is shown on the output pressure ..... Read More

Make sure the regulator is securely attached to the gas cylinder with a CO2 gasket. Close the shut-off valve on outp..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Long Will Beer Stay Fresh in a Mini Keg?

As long as the mini keg has not been tapped, and you keep it refrigerated, it should stay fresh for several months. However, once the keg has been carbonated (or filled with finished beer from a larger keg) it is ideal that you plan to consume it within 2 - 3 months. After the mini keg has been t..... Read More

As long as the mini keg has not been tapped, and you keep it refrigerated, it should stay fresh for several months. H..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Fill and Dispense Mini Kegs

Always start with a clean keg. Fill the keg with a mild soap solution and let soak for a few minutes. Rinse well with warm water and flush the valve well. Remove all water with a few pieces of paper towel and let the keg completely air dry. Sanitize the keg and two-piece bung immediately before u..... Read More

Always start with a clean keg. Fill the keg with a mild soap solution and let soak for a few minutes. Rinse well with..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Keg Beer

Kegging beer is really quite simple. After fermentation and secondary (if required), instead of moving your beer into a bottling bucket you will siphon it into a clean and sanitized keg. Once in the keg you'll want to put it in your keezer or kegerator to chill down to 38F. You will hook it up to..... Read More

Kegging beer is really quite simple. After fermentation and secondary (if required), instead of moving your beer into..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mead Gravities

Variety: Sparking mead lb./gal: 2 Original Gravity: 1.070-1.075 Final Gravity: .996 Variety: Dry (still) lb./gal: 2-2.5 Original Gravity: up to 1.110 Final Gravity: 1.000-1.010 Variety: Medium (still) lb./gal: 2.5-3 Original Gravity: 1.110-1.120 Final Gravity: 1.010-1.015 Variety: Sweet (still) l..... Read More

Variety: Sparking mead lb./gal: 2 Original Gravity: 1.070-1.075 Final Gravity: .996 Variety: Dry (still) lb./gal: 2-2..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Coarse Cheesecloth vs Butter Muslin

Coarse cheesecloth is generally used to for making hard cheese to drain large curds, line cheese molds, etc. Butter Muslin is a fine cheesecloth and is used to drain soft cheeses. Both Coarse Cheesecloth and Butter Muslin can be reused: rinse in COLD water after use and then wash in the washing m..... Read More

Coarse cheesecloth is generally used to for making hard cheese to drain large curds, line cheese molds, etc. Butter M..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Water Source and Cheese Making

It is important to use unchlorinated water during the cheese making process. Chlorinated water will stop the enzyme action of the rennet. If you don’t know whether your tap water is chlorinated, call your local water department. If it is chlorinated, you may choose to buy distilled water or sprin..... Read More

It is important to use unchlorinated water during the cheese making process. Chlorinated water will stop the enzyme a..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Brine Cheese

After pressing, the cheese is moved to a cool area to stabilize its temperature to that of the brine. (Brining a warm cheese will increase the rate of salt absorption and cause over salting.) Prepare your brine or, if you have been keeping a good brine, simply pour this into a non reactive pan. A..... Read More

After pressing, the cheese is moved to a cool area to stabilize its temperature to that of the brine. (Brining a warm..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Can Cheese be Made Without Salt?

Mozzarella and Ricotta are two cheeses that do not require salt. All of the soft cheeses may be made without salt. Salt is added to these simply for flavor. The hard cheeses and mold-ripened cheeses do require salt. Salt is used in cheese making, not just for flavor, but to slow the bacteria down..... Read More

Mozzarella and Ricotta are two cheeses that do not require salt. All of the soft cheeses may be made without salt. Sa..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cheese Rennet

What is rennet? Rennet is an enzyme used in the cheese making process to coagulate or set milk and allow cheese curds to form.Traditional Animal Rennet is an enzyme derived from the stomachs of calves, lambs, or goats before they consume anything but milk. Rennet used in cheese making is about 90..... Read More

What is rennet? Rennet is an enzyme used in the cheese making process to coagulate or set milk and allow cheese curds..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What Kind of Milk to Use When Making Cheese

Whenever possible, look for a local brand. This is because long, cold storage and transportation is problematic for milk. The closer the milk is to the source (cows, goats, etc.) the better for cheese making. All of our recipes work with most store bought milks. (It has always been our mission to..... Read More

Whenever possible, look for a local brand. This is because long, cold storage and transportation is problematic for m..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Clarify Wine

There are many possible causes for poor clarity. Do not worry though, the majority of clarity issues can be resolved with time, instead of additives, so one solution can always be to just to wait longer. Let's go over some clarifying agents anyway. Gelatin Finings: Yes, the same stuff you use to..... Read More

There are many possible causes for poor clarity. Do not worry though, the majority of clarity issues can be resolved ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Gelatin Finings

Gelatin Finings are a positively charged fining agent for wine and beer and are the most powerful of the organic finings. Using more than the recommended amount will remove too much of the color and flavor compounds from wine and some of the body from the beer. Gelatin can be used to take out phe..... Read More

Gelatin Finings are a positively charged fining agent for wine and beer and are the most powerful of the organic fini..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Campden Tablets

Initially, Campden Tablets are used to kill off any potentially harmful bacteria that may may be present in the base ingredients used in winemaking, and to discourage any wild yeast from gaining a foothold. Campden will not kill yeast, but it creates an environment inhospitable to them. As sulfur..... Read More

Initially, Campden Tablets are used to kill off any potentially harmful bacteria that may may be present in the base ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Prepare Corks for Bottling Wine

If you are using a high quality, iris compression jawed floor Corker there is no need to soak or sulfite any of the Wine Corks that Midwest Supplies sells. Simply insert them dry without any additional preparation. If you are using a small, hand-held corker (plunger, single or double-lever types)..... Read More

If you are using a high quality, iris compression jawed floor Corker there is no need to soak or sulfite any of the W..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Types of Wine Corks

Wine Corks are made out of different materials for several reasons, and some will impact your decision on what type of cork to buy. You also have different grades of cork to confuse things even more, but once you understand what each type can do for you we think it will be much easier to make a d..... Read More

Wine Corks are made out of different materials for several reasons, and some will impact your decision on what type o..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Keg as a Fermenter

You can use a keg as a secondary fermenter. Since the secondary fermentation is only for clearing purposes, it will not generate enough pressure to require an airlock. To do this: First, clean and sanitize the receiving keg and fill it with water. Connect your CO2 tank to the receiving keg and p..... Read More

You can use a keg as a secondary fermenter. Since the secondary fermentation is only for clearing purposes, it will n..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Control Fermentation Temperatures

Those of us in winter climates sometimes have this difficulty from time to time with controlling fermentation temperatures. It is easily solved with a number of methods and products. The first method is to simply wrap a blanket around your fermenter. While this isn’t effective in many cases, it m..... Read More

Those of us in winter climates sometimes have this difficulty from time to time with controlling fermentation tempera..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hop Profiles

This list of beer hops outlines alpha acids, beer styles, flavor descriptions, and possible substitutes for various hop types. Hop Profile List: ADMIRAL Alpha Acid: 11-15% Bittering Admiral hops were created at the Horticulture Research International (HRI) at Wye College. It was created by breedi..... Read More

This list of beer hops outlines alpha acids, beer styles, flavor descriptions, and possible substitutes for various h..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast Storage

Yeast will normally be stored in a refrigerator until you are ready to use it. Dry yeast does not require being stored in a refrigerator as it is freeze dried, but if you want to be on the safe side, feel free to store it in the fridge. Liquid yeast always needs to be kept in a refrigerator. Whit..... Read More

Yeast will normally be stored in a refrigerator until you are ready to use it. Dry yeast does not require being store..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast Energizer vs Yeast Nutrient

It is important to remember that Yeast Energizer and Yeast Nutrient are not the same thing. Although Yeast Energizers are types of nutrient blends, they also contain components such as vitamin B, diammonium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, magnesium sulphate, and yeast hulls. Yeast energizers are..... Read More

It is important to remember that Yeast Energizer and Yeast Nutrient are not the same thing. Although Yeast Energizers..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Dry Yeast vs Liquid Yeast

Dry Yeast The advantages of dried beer yeast are that it is simple to use, usually very active and foolproof. One can significantly improve the performance of dried yeasts (and consequently the flavor of your beer) by properly re-hydrating it. Do this, by adding the dried yeast to a sanitized gla..... Read More

Dry Yeast The advantages of dried beer yeast are that it is simple to use, usually very active and foolproof. One can..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hops and Their Various Forms

Hop pellets are highly processed hops consisting of finely powdered hop cones compressed into pea-sized tablets used in both home and commercial brewing. Regular pellet beer hops are, by weight, 20% to 30% stronger than the same variety in loose form; one pound of hop cones yields about 10 to 12 ..... Read More

Hop pellets are highly processed hops consisting of finely powdered hop cones compressed into pea-sized tablets used ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Secondary Fermentation and Headspace

You’ve got your wine transferred and are ready to add the metabisulphite to your wine. Head space becomes important after you have added the metabisulphite because you are killing the wine yeast. Up until now, your wine has been fermenting and that creates a CO2 layer over the wine. This CO2 laye..... Read More

You’ve got your wine transferred and are ready to add the metabisulphite to your wine. Head space becomes important a..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cork Popping Out of Wine Bottle

Corks pop out because of bottling wine too early and it is continuing to ferment in the bottle. As the yeast consumes the sugar still in the wine, it produces both alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. In your carboy, the CO2 escapes through the airlock as bubbles. Once you bottle the wine there ..... Read More

Corks pop out because of bottling wine too early and it is continuing to ferment in the bottle. As the yeast consumes..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wine Corks Turning Red

Your corks are probably turning red because wine has gotten between the cork and the sides of the bottle neck. This happens because when you force a cork into a bottle, the air between the cork and the wine gets compressed. If you leave the bottle standing upright for 2-3 days, the pressure will ..... Read More

Your corks are probably turning red because wine has gotten between the cork and the sides of the bottle neck. This h..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mold on Wine Cork

This isn’t necessarily a sign that your wine has leaked through. It could be that a small amount of wine stayed on top of the cork at bottling and has molded there. Carefully wipe the top of the cork and the bottle neck with a clean damp cloth before extracting the cork, and the wine should be fine... Read More

This isn’t necessarily a sign that your wine has leaked through. It could be that a small amount of wine stayed on to..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hydrogen Sulfide (HS2) Contamination (Rotten Egg Smell) in Wine

There are many things that can cause hydrogen sulfide contamination, all are preventable: Too much sulfite, usually the result of grapes being dusted with too much sulfur during the growing season. Lack of proper nutrients (nitrogen, yeast hulls) during fermentation. Yeast combining with various ..... Read More

There are many things that can cause hydrogen sulfide contamination, all are preventable: Too much sulfite, usually t..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Why Does My Wine Have a Brown Tint?

The reason your wine browns is because it is oxidizing. All wines oxidize, but well-made, well-protected, and well-balanced wines resist oxidation for many, many years, and exceptional wines can last for 50-100 years without doing so. To last that long, the wine has to have three characteristics:..... Read More

The reason your wine browns is because it is oxidizing. All wines oxidize, but well-made, well-protected, and well-ba..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Is it Legal to Make Liquor at Home?

It is legal to make liquor at home as long as you do not use a still. You might want to check with your state laws because some states limit the percentage of alcohol you can make at home. Don’t confuse alcohol percentage with proof. A 20% alcohol liquor is around 40 proof. The reason why most pe..... Read More

It is legal to make liquor at home as long as you do not use a still. You might want to check with your state laws be..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Bottle Beer

Bottling beer can be a little time consuming, but it's easy enough to do. You want to make sure that all of your beer bottles are free of debris inside, and you have sanitized them just like you would any of your other equipment. Find more information on sanitizing homebrew equipment here. Here's..... Read More

Bottling beer can be a little time consuming, but it's easy enough to do. You want to make sure that all of your beer..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Bottle Beer from a Keg

Kegging systems are great, but they are not the most portable. There are a few options for those of us with a keg system who do not want pull it apart just to bring the beer to a friend’s house. Two options are very inexpensive and easy, while one is more money and more time consuming. Your optio..... Read More

Kegging systems are great, but they are not the most portable. There are a few options for those of us with a keg sys..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Troubleshooting Quality of Homebrew

Below are products intended to improve the overall quality of your beer or solve common problems such as poor head retention, thin body, or haze. Amylase Enzyme One of the diastatic enzymes (naturally occurring in malted barley) that converts starch to maltose (sugar) and allows better conversion..... Read More

Below are products intended to improve the overall quality of your beer or solve common problems such as poor head re..... Read More

October 25, 2019

All Grain Brewing Equipment List

It's an exciting time when a brewer decides to switch from extract to all-grain brewing. Brewers just make wort while yeast actually make the beer and all-grain brewing allows you to produce your own wort instead of just boiling up malt syrups. Some beers will turn out much better and you can act..... Read More

It's an exciting time when a brewer decides to switch from extract to all-grain brewing. Brewers just make wort while..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make Wine Without a Recipe Kit

Sometimes you just want to be able to experiment when making wine. Wine kits are great because they include everything, and are very easy to make. However, maybe you want to make a blend, or you just want something different. Midwest offers a couple different options for those that want to expand..... Read More

Sometimes you just want to be able to experiment when making wine. Wine kits are great because they include everythin..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use an Acid Testing Kit for Wine

Acid testing kits can help you know how much acid you are dealing with in your wine. Specifically, these kits are testing for tartaric acid. By testing the acid level in your wine, you are able to adjust it as you need to, but you can only adjust the wine so much otherwise you end up with a chalk..... Read More

Acid testing kits can help you know how much acid you are dealing with in your wine. Specifically, these kits are tes..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Buckets for Winemaking

Re-using plastic pails from other sources, like buckets that previously held food products, is always a mistake. The food odors will have sunk into the plastic, and will taint the wine. Also, plastic items not intended for food purposes, such as brand-new garbage pails must never be used for wine..... Read More

Re-using plastic pails from other sources, like buckets that previously held food products, is always a mistake. The ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wine Preservatives

Preservatives (sulfites) are an important part of wine making. Don’t worry about adding them to your home-made wine. Not only do they keep wine from developing infections, they also keep the wine from oxidizing. If you are concerned about the use of sulfites in wine read on! The preservative we m..... Read More

Preservatives (sulfites) are an important part of wine making. Don’t worry about adding them to your home-made wine. ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Stabilizing Wine Before Bottling

Wine is stabilized to stop fermentation so that remaining yeast do not ferment added or residual sugar after bottling and cause the bottles to explode. When it comes time to stabilize and fine the wine, it has to be stirred vigorously enough to drive off all of the CO2 that has accumulated during..... Read More

Wine is stabilized to stop fermentation so that remaining yeast do not ferment added or residual sugar after bottling..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Best Temperature to Ferment Wine

Most wine ingredient kit instructions tell you to ferment your wine within a specific temperature range. Midwest recommends 65 °F to 75 °F. Yeast thrives at these temperatures, and also likes to be kept at the same temperature until its done doing its work. If the fermentation area is too cool, t..... Read More

Most wine ingredient kit instructions tell you to ferment your wine within a specific temperature range. Midwest reco..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Pitch Yeast

There are two types of yeast that home brewers use when fermenting their beer. You have dry and liquid yeast available. We’ll cover both types and how to use them. Dry Yeast Dry yeast can be sprinkled right into the cooled wort if you want. You do not need to rehydrate, but some people still like..... Read More

There are two types of yeast that home brewers use when fermenting their beer. You have dry and liquid yeast availabl..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What to Know About High-Output Burners

Q: Do I need a high-output burner to brew all-grain? A: While a high-output burner is not required to brew all-grain, it is highly recommended. The reason is that when brewing all-grain, you are boiling a much higher volume than you would brewing extract. Doing this on your kitchen stove, it will..... Read More

Q: Do I need a high-output burner to brew all-grain? A: While a high-output burner is not required to brew all-grain,..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Carbonating Stone

Using a carbonation stone will cut down the time needed to carbonate the beer to about 1/2 hour. The beer needs to be cold, between 34 and 40 °F. Attach the stone so that it is at or near the bottom of the keg. Start with no pressure on the regulator and increase to 1-2 psi and let sit for about..... Read More

Using a carbonation stone will cut down the time needed to carbonate the beer to about 1/2 hour. The beer needs to b..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What to do When the Airlock or Bung Blows Off the Fermenter

First, try to get over the shock of how much of a mess this made. Second, don’t worry, things will be fine. This problem always occurs during the most raucous period of primary fermentation. The yeast is producing carbon dioxide gas at such a prolific rate that the airlock cannot allow the gas to..... Read More

First, try to get over the shock of how much of a mess this made. Second, don’t worry, things will be fine. This prob..... Read More

October 25, 2019

CO2 Tank Troubleshooting

Hearing a Hissing Noise From CO2 Tank: This is actually pretty easy to troubleshoot, as there are only a few things you need to check. Start with the little o-rings that are on the keg posts. If it is dry or cracked, it will cause the problem you are describing. Very easy and cheap to replace. I..... Read More

Hearing a Hissing Noise From CO2 Tank: This is actually pretty easy to troubleshoot, as there are only a few things y..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Get a Stuck Stopper or Bung Out of a Carboy

RELAX. Everything's going to be just fine. This has happened once to just about everyone. And here's a good place to interject my favorite phantom statistic, 9.9 out of 10 times the beer turns out just fine. Fix another sanitized bung and airlock to the carboy and allow the primary fermentation ..... Read More

RELAX. Everything's going to be just fine. This has happened once to just about everyone. And here's a good place to..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is Oxidation in Beer?

Oxidation results in a stale, cardboard-like taste in your beer. If you are experiencing this, there are a couple of possibilities: If you have been storing your beer for an extended period of time, the beer may have become oxidized. While the bottle cap does provide a nearly airtight seal, air m..... Read More

Oxidation results in a stale, cardboard-like taste in your beer. If you are experiencing this, there are a couple of ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Where to Fill CO2 Tanks

Midwest does exchange CO2 cylinders, but IN-STORE ONLY, as full cylinders cannot be shipped. Otherwise, just search for local Gas or Welding Supply companies, most will be able to exchange your tank for a full one. For proper dispensing of nitrogenated Stout beers, such as Guinness, you'll need t..... Read More

Midwest does exchange CO2 cylinders, but IN-STORE ONLY, as full cylinders cannot be shipped. Otherwise, just search f..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Long is the One Step Solution Good For?

One Step works by producing hydrogen peroxide in the solution, so the most important thing is to keep in mind that peroxides are degraded by organic soils, light, and heat, so if you keep your solution away from those things, it will stay better, longer. In a sealed, dark, and clean container, th..... Read More

One Step works by producing hydrogen peroxide in the solution, so the most important thing is to keep in mind that pe..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Remove Labels from Beer Bottles

Label removal is made quite easy with B-Brite: Take the bottling bucket, fill it about three-quarters of the way with warm water and add 1 tablespoon of B-Brite. Pack as many bottles as you can into the bucket, submerging them in the solution as you go. When you have as many bottles as you think..... Read More

Label removal is made quite easy with B-Brite: Take the bottling bucket, fill it about three-quarters of the way wit..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Adjust Water for Homebrewing

It is much easier to add minerals than to remove them. The home brewer who intends to make a variety of adjustments and is using very soft, distilled or reverse osmosis (R/O) water is very fortunate. The adjustments are only a matter of adding one or more mineral salts to achieve the desired qual..... Read More

It is much easier to add minerals than to remove them. The home brewer who intends to make a variety of adjustments a..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Oxygenate or Aerate Wort

To achieve higher than 8 ppm O2 levels in your wort, simply shake the carboy for 20 seconds two times. You can also inject pure oxygen into your wort through a stone (1 min for 12 ppm). We carry an awesome tool to do this for you simply and effortlessly, see our Oxygenation Kit 2.0... Read More

To achieve higher than 8 ppm O2 levels in your wort, simply shake the carboy for 20 seconds two times. You can also i..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Clean Beer Lines

If you are using your tap beer lines regularly, we advised cleaning your beer lines every two weeks... Read More

If you are using your tap beer lines regularly, we advised cleaning your beer lines every two weeks... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Fix a Stuck Sparge

The first thing to do is make sure that it's really stuck. It is better to wait another hour or so for a slow mash than to start mucking around with the situation. Actually, you can wait quite a while without seriously affecting the quality of the beer. So, if you 've got the time and patience yo..... Read More

The first thing to do is make sure that it's really stuck. It is better to wait another hour or so for a slow mash th..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Avoid "Dough Balls" When Mashing In

As far as the crush goes, you are looking for the grains to be cracked open, but not ground into flour. This being said, there are a few ways to avoid the dreaded dough balls. Try starting with hot (170° F) water in your mash tun, and adding the grain a little bit at a time, dispersing it as you ..... Read More

As far as the crush goes, you are looking for the grains to be cracked open, but not ground into flour. This being sa..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Troubleshooting Kegging Issues

Almost all dispensing problems are the result of improper temperature, improper pressure, or cleaning/sanitation issues. Reviewing this checklist should solve most common issues. Is the keg being stored between 36-38 degrees F? Is the CO2 pressure between 7-10 lbs? Have the Faucet, beer line, and..... Read More

Almost all dispensing problems are the result of improper temperature, improper pressure, or cleaning/sanitation issu..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Crush Grains

Getting a proper crack is important for getting the best mash efficiency and extraction rate. If cracked grain is too finely ground it will turn into porridge. If the grains aren’t cracked enough it will result in a poor conversion rate. A properly cracked grain has a range of particle sizes that..... Read More

Getting a proper crack is important for getting the best mash efficiency and extraction rate. If cracked grain is too..... Read More

October 25, 2019

When to Add Hops During the Brewing Process

Beer hops are typically added to wort in 3 stages during the boil: bittering, flavor, and aroma. These stages have to do with what role they are playing in your beer, and are not associated with a specific type of hop. In other words, the same hop variety might be used for bittering, flavor, and ..... Read More

Beer hops are typically added to wort in 3 stages during the boil: bittering, flavor, and aroma. These stages have to..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Over-Carbonated Beer

Typically a beer over carbonates because it is stored in too warm of a location for too long. Yeast will continue to ferment if left to its own devices. Once a beer is carbonated (typically 2 -3 weeks) make sure to move the beer to a location below 55 °F for storage. At this temperature the yeast..... Read More

Typically a beer over carbonates because it is stored in too warm of a location for too long. Yeast will continue to ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Determine Specific Gravity when Using Malt Extract

Dry malt extract (DME) produces about 1.044 Specific gravity, per pound per gallon of water and liquid malt extract (LME) produces about 1.036. These yield values are referred to as Points per Pound per Gallon. If someone tells you that a certain extract or malt's yield is 36 points, it means tha..... Read More

Dry malt extract (DME) produces about 1.044 Specific gravity, per pound per gallon of water and liquid malt extract (..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make a Yeast Starter

While any beer will benefit from the use of a yeast starter, one should definitely be used if you're brewing a high gravity beer such as a Barley Wine or an Imperial Stout. A yeast starter will result in a quicker start to fermentation and a more complete fermentation. How to prepare a yeast star..... Read More

While any beer will benefit from the use of a yeast starter, one should definitely be used if you're brewing a high g..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mini Jet Wine Filter Troubleshooting

Not Working at All- Could be caused by a gear inside the pump becoming stuck due to: failure to flush out the pump properly after the last filtering session oak chips becoming trapped between the gears How to Lubricate the Gears on the Mini Jet Pump- Tools required: Philips screw driver, small..... Read More

Not Working at All- Could be caused by a gear inside the pump becoming stuck due to: failure to flush out the pump ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Super Jet Wine Filter Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting Loss of Suction- There are a few reasons that the Super Jet Wine Filter can lose suction, most of which can be fixed with a simple adjustment. Troubleshooting points to check for: The intake hose is loose on the pump. The vinyl intake tube can get stretched over time and allow ai..... Read More

Troubleshooting Loss of Suction- There are a few reasons that the Super Jet Wine Filter can lose suction, most of whi..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Oxygen Absorbing Bottle Caps

The oxygen-absorbing caps absorb the oxygen left in the head-space of the bottle, reducing the chance of oxidation. We suggest using these for brews that will be aged for an extended period of time... Read More

The oxygen-absorbing caps absorb the oxygen left in the head-space of the bottle, reducing the chance of oxidation. W..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Filter and Carbonate Your Home Brew

If you are using a filtration system, then you should just force carbonate your beer. The best and quickest way to filter and carbonate is to keg your beer. Using the Draft Brewer Beer Filtration System place the Coarse filter into the filter housing between the two kegs. Run the beer through the..... Read More

If you are using a filtration system, then you should just force carbonate your beer. The best and quickest way to fi..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Many Beer Bottles per 5 Gallon Batch of Beer

The exact yield of your 5 gallon batch can vary based upon any loss from transfers and the amount of trub that accumulated. With that in mind here are some general counts for different bottle sizes for a 5 gallon batch. 48-54 12 ounce bottles 32-35 16 ounce bottles 24-26 22 ounce bottles 16-18 32..... Read More

The exact yield of your 5 gallon batch can vary based upon any loss from transfers and the amount of trub that accumu..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Store Wine for a Long Time

"What do I want to do if I plan on storing my wine for several years?" PDF Properly storing a wine can be just as important as how you made the wine. There is nothing worse than pulling out a bottle of your own vino for friends to try only to find out that it has gone bad. A few simple things th..... Read More

"What do I want to do if I plan on storing my wine for several years?" PDF Properly storing a wine can be just as im..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wines and Acids

Wine grapes naturally produce organic acids, including tartaric, malic and citric acid (in smaller quantities). Other acids, such as lactic acid, are produced during fermentation. In the proper amounts they give a pleasing and refreshing taste to the wines.When excessive acid is present the wine ..... Read More

Wine grapes naturally produce organic acids, including tartaric, malic and citric acid (in smaller quantities). Other..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Create More Tannin Flavor in Wine

Tannin is usually added to the must before fermentation begins, but this is not absolutely necessary and, in your case, not even desired. We add it to most non-grape wines before fermenting, but often adjust it upward by taste, just before bottling. This can be a delicate process. When the wine h..... Read More

Tannin is usually added to the must before fermentation begins, but this is not absolutely necessary and, in your cas..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is Polyclar and How is it Used?

Polyclar is a stabilizing additive for wine or beer which removes polyphenolic compounds and oxidized melanoidins. This means that when used in beer it will remove haze-causing husk tannins and oxidized compounds that contribute to off flavors. When used in a finished wine it can help to remove h..... Read More

Polyclar is a stabilizing additive for wine or beer which removes polyphenolic compounds and oxidized melanoidins. Th..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Determine the Alcohol Content of Wine

Simple subtraction. Take a hydrometer reading right before you pitch the wine yeast into your must (see “How to Take a Hydrometer Reading” ). Make a note of this reading, which should be in the range between 1.060 and 1.120, depending on the recipe and style you are making. After the fermentation..... Read More

Simple subtraction. Take a hydrometer reading right before you pitch the wine yeast into your must (see “How to Take ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Which Wine Types to Oak

Several types of wine lend themselves well to oaking, most notably Cabernet, Chardonnay, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Bordeaux, Chianti, Burgundy, Fume Blanc, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, Shiraz, and Pinot Blanc, just to name a few. Generally speaking, German wines are not us..... Read More

Several types of wine lend themselves well to oaking, most notably Cabernet, Chardonnay, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Pin..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Punch Down Your Wine

If you’ve ever attempted to make a big red wine at home from fresh grapes - but the finished product lacked color, taste, or tannin structure - chances are, your wine could have benefited from a winemaking technique known as “punching down”. If you make wines from kits, you will certainly benefit..... Read More

If you’ve ever attempted to make a big red wine at home from fresh grapes - but the finished product lacked color, ta..... Read More

October 25, 2019

When to Bottle Wine

If your wine is clear, stable, and free of CO2, it's ready. Clear means free of particles that could later fall out of suspension and leave a deposit in the bottles. Stable means finished fermenting and with enough sulfites (SO2) present to prevent oxidation and spoiling. Free of CO2 means that a..... Read More

If your wine is clear, stable, and free of CO2, it's ready. Clear means free of particles that could later fall out o..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Sparkolloid

Derived from algae, this clarifier is good for reducing haze-causing proteins in light wines. Mix one teaspoon per gallon of wine into 1 or 2 cups of boiling water. Boil for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. While solution is still warm, mix into 6 gallons of wine and stir gently. For best resul..... Read More

Derived from algae, this clarifier is good for reducing haze-causing proteins in light wines. Mix one teaspoon per ga..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Bentonite

Bentonite as a fining agent Bentonite is, indeed, a fining agent. Fining is the action of removing particles that make a haze in wine by combining them with materials that bind to them and force them out of suspension, leaving the wine clear and bright. It not only improves a wine’s appearance; i..... Read More

Bentonite as a fining agent Bentonite is, indeed, a fining agent. Fining is the action of removing particles that mak..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How Long to Store Wine Before Drinking

Although the concentrate wine kits can be done quickly, some winemakers elect to store the wine longer before they start to drink it. The reason is because a good wine can become a great wine when you allow it to age. However, this is all a matter of taste to the individual. Some wine drinkers re..... Read More

Although the concentrate wine kits can be done quickly, some winemakers elect to store the wine longer before they st..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use a Crusher or Destemmer

A crusher/destemmer is one of the best items you can own when it comes to wine making. These units are great for grape wines, but they can also make softer fruits easier to press. Keep in mind that this unit is not designed to take the stem off strawberries, but it can help pulp them up a bit. Th..... Read More

A crusher/destemmer is one of the best items you can own when it comes to wine making. These units are great for grap..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Testing the pH of Wine

When a vintner makes a wine from juice concentrate, testing for acid or pH levels really isn't that important because the juice is pretty well balanced by the manufacturer. Unless you know you are using an out of balance water, there is very little reason to have to do any testing. For those that..... Read More

When a vintner makes a wine from juice concentrate, testing for acid or pH levels really isn't that important because..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Blending Wines

There are several reasons a home winemaker might want to utilize blends. A good example is to blend a wine that is too dry with one that is too sweet to create a more balanced wine. In this instance, the two wines should be similarly based, both Merlots, for example. You may also want to blend wi..... Read More

There are several reasons a home winemaker might want to utilize blends. A good example is to blend a wine that is to..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Fix a Stuck Wine Fermentation

Hydrometer readings for three consecutive days, and the reading remains the same and is higher than 1.000, it's probably stuck. Make sure you have a good airtight seal at your Airlock. Ensure that the airlock is firmly seated in the Bung, and the bung is securely seated in the mouth of the Carboy..... Read More

Hydrometer readings for three consecutive days, and the reading remains the same and is higher than 1.000, it's proba..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Winemaking Equipment Kit Upgrades

Our wine making kits are a great place to start making wine at home, but there are a few extra things you’ll need to complete the process. When it’s time to bottle your first batch, you will need 30 wine bottles for your 6 gallon batch of wine. Our winemaking equipment kits come with 30 corks, af..... Read More

Our wine making kits are a great place to start making wine at home, but there are a few extra things you’ll need to ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Growing Conditions for Hop Rhizomes

A well placed rhizome plant can provide you with more hops then you can ever imagine... Read More

A well placed rhizome plant can provide you with more hops then you can ever imagine... Read More

October 25, 2019

Winterizing Hops Plants

Hop plants are pretty hardy plants, but some preparation for winter can only help them perform that much better next season. Cut the entire plant down to 4"-6" above the ground. Don’t worry it will grow back next season. Loosen up the soil around the plant a little bit to help keep the soil from..... Read More

Hop plants are pretty hardy plants, but some preparation for winter can only help them perform that much better next ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Use Your Own Hops

You've grown your hops all summer long, you've dehydrated them, and now you are ready to use them. Congratulations, this is the moment you have been waiting for! Make sure the hops you have grown will work for the beer you plan on making. Don't use Centennial hops when you are trying to make a w..... Read More

You've grown your hops all summer long, you've dehydrated them, and now you are ready to use them. Congratulations, t..... Read More

October 25, 2019

When to Harvest Hops

Hops are usually ready to pick by late August or early September depending on where you live. Select a random cone and cut it vertically. A ripe cone will have yellow dust (lupulin) in the center and it should be pungently hoppy. Another way to tell is to snap a hop cone in half. If it breaks lik..... Read More

Hops are usually ready to pick by late August or early September depending on where you live. Select a random cone an..... Read More

October 25, 2019

All Grain Glossary

Single infusion mashing: One temperature is used to create the malt sugar. Water is heated to 12-18 degrees above the target temperature and then added while stirring to the grain and held at that temperature until starch conversion is complete. Multi-Step Mashing: Mash method that incorporates ..... Read More

Single infusion mashing: One temperature is used to create the malt sugar. Water is heated to 12-18 degrees above the..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Fly Sparging vs Batch Sparging

First, let's give you a little background on what the two types of sparging are. How to Fly Sparge Fly sparging is the process of using a sparge arm, or any device that allows the water to sprinkle over the grains in the mash tun. A sparge arm is used as it helps prevent channeling of the water i..... Read More

First, let's give you a little background on what the two types of sparging are. How to Fly Sparge Fly sparging is th..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make a Lager

Some brewers refer to the entire process of brewing a lager as "lagering", which can be confusing. The term lagering actually refers to the extended secondary aging the beer undergoes at cold temperatures (hovering above freezing), sometimes referred to as cold conditioning. While this step is ne..... Read More

Some brewers refer to the entire process of brewing a lager as "lagering", which can be confusing. The term lagering ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Why is All of my Homebrew Tasting the Same?

So, you've got a few beers under your belt, but you are noticing a similar flavor between all of them. This is a good thing if you've been making the same beer every time. But, if you have made 6 different beers and there is a constant/similar/consistent flavor in all of them, then take a look at..... Read More

So, you've got a few beers under your belt, but you are noticing a similar flavor between all of them. This is a good..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Make a Heather Ale

Heather Ale is a style of beer that was made many years ago using heather tips in place of hops, which had not begun being used in beers yet. Heather was a way to provide more flavor to a beer that was otherwise boring. Well, beers made centuries ago weren't exactly boring, but they weren't exact..... Read More

Heather Ale is a style of beer that was made many years ago using heather tips in place of hops, which had not begun ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Homebrewing with Oats

As long as the oats are "quick" oats as opposed to old-fashioned. The difference is that quick oats are pregelatinized to make the starches available for conversion. Old fashioned oats are not pregelatinized and require a cereal mash first to gelatinize them. The oats would go into the mash tun f..... Read More

As long as the oats are "quick" oats as opposed to old-fashioned. The difference is that quick oats are pregelatinize..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Hard and Soft Water

The basic difference between hard and soft water is that hard water reacts with soap to form solid soap scum and soft water does not form soap scum. The formation of soap scum on your skin is the reason that soap seems easier to rinse from your body. A general scale would look something like: 0-..... Read More

The basic difference between hard and soft water is that hard water reacts with soap to form solid soap scum and soft..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Temporary Hardness and the Affect it has on the Brewing Process

Temporary hardness is determined by the measure of bicarbonates. The hardness that bicarbonate ions impart is temporary because it is easily precipitated and is removed when water is boiled or treated with certain acids. A bicarbonate measure greater than 100 ppm is undesirable because of its con..... Read More

Temporary hardness is determined by the measure of bicarbonates. The hardness that bicarbonate ions impart is tempora..... Read More

October 25, 2019

How to Clarify Beer

We know that many of you just getting into this refreshingly rewarding hobby would like their beer to look better. Fermentation is a messy process, and sometimes leaves undesirable sediment behind. The big commercial breweries often use mechanical filtration to "brighten" their beer, but there is..... Read More

We know that many of you just getting into this refreshingly rewarding hobby would like their beer to look better. Fe..... Read More

October 25, 2019

What is a Protein Rest? When to use it?

A protein rest is done before a saccharification rest (resting your mash in the 148-158 °F range for ~60-90 minutes) by bringing your mash to 122-131 °F for ~20 minutes. Most malts do not require the use of a protein rest, as they have been well modified (a high degree of of breakdown during malt..... Read More

A protein rest is done before a saccharification rest (resting your mash in the 148-158 °F range for ~60-90 minutes) ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mash or Lauter Tuns and How They Work

A mash tun, also combined with a lauter tun, is a vessel in which you infuse your grains; usually a large cooler (or kettle) equipped with a false bottom and a valve with a spigot that allows you to draw off the sweet wort. In order to extract the sugar from the grains, you mix them into the mash..... Read More

A mash tun, also combined with a lauter tun, is a vessel in which you infuse your grains; usually a large cooler (or ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Mash Tun False Bottoms

A false bottom is kind of a screen that aids in separating the sweet wort from the mash / grains. A false bottom is usually a round piece of metal with lots of little holes drilled in it. It sits at the bottom of your mash tun, and is either curved or has legs that allow it to sit an inch or so a..... Read More

A false bottom is kind of a screen that aids in separating the sweet wort from the mash / grains. A false bottom is u..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Cereal Mash

A cereal mash is used to gelatinize starches in unmalted grains in order for the conversion enzymes to gain access to them. Every grain has a different gelatinization temp, and often that's higher than the mash temp, so you need to gelatinize separately. Basically, you boil the grains (rice, corn..... Read More

A cereal mash is used to gelatinize starches in unmalted grains in order for the conversion enzymes to gain access to..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Zymurgy

The chemistry of Fermentation with Yeasts, especially the Science involved in Beer and Wine Making... Read More

The chemistry of Fermentation with Yeasts, especially the Science involved in Beer and Wine Making... Read More

October 25, 2019

Zymase

A group of enzymes (originally found in yeasts and bacteria) which, in the presence of oxygen, convert glucose and a few other carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and water or, in the absence of oxygen, into alcohol and carbon dioxide or into lactic acid... Read More

A group of enzymes (originally found in yeasts and bacteria) which, in the presence of oxygen, convert glucose and a ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Zinfandel

Also known as Primativo, Zinfandel is at home in California. Zinfandels range in style from fruity blush wines, to fresh early drinking reds, to almost portlike reds. Zinfandel is a great example of how terrior influences and winemaking techniques can make totally different wines from the same gr..... Read More

Also known as Primativo, Zinfandel is at home in California. Zinfandels range in style from fruity blush wines, to fr..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Zest

Term often used to describe the 'bite' that some wines have in them. Usually associated with new, or young, wines. The zest is often due to the alcohol in the wine... Read More

Term often used to describe the 'bite' that some wines have in them. Usually associated with new, or young, wines. Th..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yield of

Number of pounds of extract, obtained from 100 pounds of brewing material, given in percent. Also kilos extract per kilo brewing material. Distinguish between laboratory yield of malt and adjunct which is determined by standard ASBC methods and brewhouse yield, which depends on equipment and oper..... Read More

Number of pounds of extract, obtained from 100 pounds of brewing material, given in percent. Also kilos extract per k..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast Nutrient

A brewing additive which adds free amino nitrogen (FAN), a substance which is essential for good yeast health. Think of it as fertilizer for your yeast. As with yeast energizer, should not be necessary for beer wort, since malt already contains all of the essential nutrients for your yeast... Read More

A brewing additive which adds free amino nitrogen (FAN), a substance which is essential for good yeast health. Think ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast Energizer

A brewing additive which is typically produced by extracting the "futs" of yeast cells in a centrifuge. Provides essential nutrients to the yeast. Since barley malt already contains all of hte nutrients that yeast need, yeast energizer is generally unnecessary when brewing beer. It may be more he..... Read More

A brewing additive which is typically produced by extracting the "futs" of yeast cells in a centrifuge. Provides esse..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast Crop

Yeast collected from fermentors during or after the fermentation... Read More

Yeast collected from fermentors during or after the fermentation... Read More

October 25, 2019

Yeast

One of the four main ingredients used in making beer. A group of unicellular organisms of the family Saccharomycetaceae which ferment sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide by virtue of its enzymes (Zymase). A general term for single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Some yeasts can ferment c..... Read More

One of the four main ingredients used in making beer. A group of unicellular organisms of the family Saccharomycetace..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wort

Basically, unfermented beer. You will have made wort after the mashing and sparging process. Liquid or Dry malt extract can be described as a concentrated wort. Pronounced "wert.".. Read More

Basically, unfermented beer. You will have made wort after the mashing and sparging process. Liquid or Dry malt extra..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Witbier

A pale, cloudy beer, brewed with a high percentage of unmalted wheat (and sometimes oats), and spiced with coriander and orange peel... Read More

A pale, cloudy beer, brewed with a high percentage of unmalted wheat (and sometimes oats), and spiced with coriander ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wine Conditioner

Mixture of liquid invert sugar and sorbic acid, used to sweeten finished wine... Read More

Mixture of liquid invert sugar and sorbic acid, used to sweeten finished wine... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wild Yeast

Uninvited yeast other than cultured yeasts... Read More

Uninvited yeast other than cultured yeasts... Read More

October 25, 2019

Whirlpool

Round cylindrical flat bottom tank into which hot wort from the brew kettle is pumped at high velocity tangentially to its straight wall. This high speed stream causes the wort in the tank to rotate slowly and to deposit its trub in a more or less compact cone in the center of the tank... Read More

Round cylindrical flat bottom tank into which hot wort from the brew kettle is pumped at high velocity tangentially t..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wheat

The second most common grain used in beer brewing. Malted wheat makes up at least 50% of the grist of traditional Weizen and Hefeweizen beers, and may also be added in lesser amounts in other styles (generally as an aid to head retention). Unmalted wheat makes up a substantial percentage of the g..... Read More

The second most common grain used in beer brewing. Malted wheat makes up at least 50% of the grist of traditional Wei..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Weizenbock

A Weizen (German-style wheat ale) which has been brewed to Bockstrength (OG of at least 1.066)... Read More

A Weizen (German-style wheat ale) which has been brewed to Bockstrength (OG of at least 1.066)... Read More

October 25, 2019

Weizen

A German-style wheat ale, with a fruity/spicy character imparted by unique yeast strains. Unfiltered versions are generally referred to as Hefeweizen... Read More

A German-style wheat ale, with a fruity/spicy character imparted by unique yeast strains. Unfiltered versions are gen..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Wax

Any one of a class of substances of plant or animal origin, insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, ether, etc., and miscible (mixable) in all proportions with oils and fats. They consist of esters and often, in addition, free fatty acids, free alcohols and higher hydrocarbons... Read More

Any one of a class of substances of plant or animal origin, insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, ether, etc..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Volatile Acid

Acid created during fermentation or spoilage; for example, vinegar... Read More

Acid created during fermentation or spoilage; for example, vinegar... Read More

October 25, 2019

Viscosity

Stickiness, aka; the resistance offered by a fluid (liquid or gas) to flow. The viscosity is a characteristic property and is a measure of the combined effects of adhesion and cohesion... Read More

Stickiness, aka; the resistance offered by a fluid (liquid or gas) to flow. The viscosity is a characteristic propert..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Vinous

Winelike; tasting or smelling like good wine.. Read More

Winelike; tasting or smelling like good wine.. Read More

October 25, 2019

Vienna Lager

An amber or light brown lager, with a light toasted character... Read More

An amber or light brown lager, with a light toasted character... Read More

October 25, 2019

Victory malt

Victory Malt is a toasted malt, similar to biscuit malt, that can improve body and head retention in beer. The color is between 25-28 Lovibond, and has been described as slightly red or amber in color with highlights of orange... Read More

Victory Malt is a toasted malt, similar to biscuit malt, that can improve body and head retention in beer. The color ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Vertical Tasting

A tasting of several different vintages of the exact same wine or beer... Read More

A tasting of several different vintages of the exact same wine or beer... Read More

October 25, 2019

Vat

Usually a fermenting or storage vessel... Read More

Usually a fermenting or storage vessel... Read More

October 25, 2019

Upperdough

The sludge on top of the layer of grains in a straining tank, consisting of finely divided light particles, mostly coagulated protein... Read More

The sludge on top of the layer of grains in a straining tank, consisting of finely divided light particles, mostly co..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Underdough

The sludge contained between the false bottom and the real bottom of a straining tank. It consists of rather hard parts of the mash and contains at times considerable amounts of starch... Read More

The sludge contained between the false bottom and the real bottom of a straining tank. It consists of rather hard par..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Turbinado sugar

Cane sugar which has not been fully refined. Still contains some of the natural molasses, giving it a golden color, and a rum-like flavor. Sometimes called raw sugar... Read More

Cane sugar which has not been fully refined. Still contains some of the natural molasses, giving it a golden color, a..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Turbid

Cloudy or opaque... Read More

Cloudy or opaque... Read More

October 25, 2019

Trub

(pronounced troob) The whitish, scummy layer that forms on the bottom of fermenting wort containing precipitated proteins, dead or dying yeast cells, lipids and fats, and other molecules. If beer is not removed from contact with the trub after two to three weeks, off flavors can develop... Read More

(pronounced troob) The whitish, scummy layer that forms on the bottom of fermenting wort containing precipitated pro..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Tripel

A pale, very strong Belgian ale. high alcohol content is achieved without making the beer too sweet, but adding generous amounts of sucrose (cane or beet sugar) to the wort. This can be done without the negative flavor impacts generally associated with the use of sucrose, because there is also a ..... Read More

A pale, very strong Belgian ale. high alcohol content is achieved without making the beer too sweet, but adding gener..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Treacle

The British term for molasses... Read More

The British term for molasses... Read More

October 25, 2019

Trappist Ale

In its broadest sense, refers to any style of ale that is brewed in a Trappist monastery. The most commonly seen sub-styles of Trappist Ale are Dubbel and Tripel; other beers which do not fit either of these styles may still be referred to as Trappist Ales, provided that they are still brewed at ..... Read More

In its broadest sense, refers to any style of ale that is brewed in a Trappist monastery. The most commonly seen sub-..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Torrified

Puffed. Many grains are available in torrified form, alas, all must be mashed... Read More

Puffed. Many grains are available in torrified form, alas, all must be mashed... Read More

October 25, 2019

Titration

A method, or the process, of using a standard solution to determine the strength of another solution... Read More

A method, or the process, of using a standard solution to determine the strength of another solution... Read More

October 25, 2019

Temperature Rest

In all-grain brewing, refers to bringing the mash to a specific temperature, and holding that temperature for a specified period of time... Read More

In all-grain brewing, refers to bringing the mash to a specific temperature, and holding that temperature for a speci..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Tannin

Astringent polyphenol compounds that can cause haze and/or join with large proteins to precipitate them from solution. Tannins are most commonly found in the grain husks and hop cone material... Read More

Astringent polyphenol compounds that can cause haze and/or join with large proteins to precipitate them from solution..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Sweet Wine

Wine with more than 2% residual sugar.. Read More

Wine with more than 2% residual sugar.. Read More

October 25, 2019

Sweet Stout

A sub-style of Stout characterized by a sweet taste. The sweetness is usually achieved by the addition of lactose (a.k.a. milk sugar), which is not fermentable by brewers yeast. Because of the use of lactose, it is also sometimes referred to as Milk Stout. View all Stouts and Porters... Read More

A sub-style of Stout characterized by a sweet taste. The sweetness is usually achieved by the addition of lactose (a...... Read More

October 25, 2019

Suspension

The state of a solid when its particles are mixed with, but undissolved in, a fluid or another solid; a two-phase system consisting of a finely divided solid dispersed in a solid, liquid or gas... Read More

The state of a solid when its particles are mixed with, but undissolved in, a fluid or another solid; a two-phase sys..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Sur Lie

French term for leaving the wine in contact with its lees... Read More

French term for leaving the wine in contact with its lees... Read More

October 25, 2019

Sucrose

This disaccharide consists of a fructose molecule joined with a glucose molecule. It is most readily available as cane sugar.. Read More

This disaccharide consists of a fructose molecule joined with a glucose molecule. It is most readily available as can..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Stewing

The process by which crystal malts are produced. Whole damp malt is heated to saccharification temperatures, allowing the amylase enzymes which are naturally present in the malt to convert the starches into sugars. The malt is then kilned (heated), to dry it and impart color and flavor... Read More

The process by which crystal malts are produced. Whole damp malt is heated to saccharification temperatures, allowing..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Sterilize

To kill all microbes present in a substance (or on surface). Typically requires the use of an autoclave... Read More

To kill all microbes present in a substance (or on surface). Typically requires the use of an autoclave... Read More

October 25, 2019

Steeping Grains

Steeping is like making tea- you’re extracting flavor from grains and sugar/flavor/color release into water. Steeping contributes much more color and flavor to a beer than sugars. Used in extract brewing applications. It is the process of soaking grains (usually specialty grains) in water to extr..... Read More

Steeping is like making tea- you’re extracting flavor from grains and sugar/flavor/color release into water. Steeping..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Steam Beer

Top fermenting beer of very high carbon dioxide content, originated in California. See California Common... Read More

Top fermenting beer of very high carbon dioxide content, originated in California. See California Common... Read More

October 25, 2019

Starter

A vigorous yeast culture prepared in advance to ensure a strong initial ferment. Also describes reserving and nurturing a sample of yeast for future use... Read More

A vigorous yeast culture prepared in advance to ensure a strong initial ferment. Also describes reserving and nurturi..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Starch Haze

A haze in the finished beer which results from the presence of unconverted starch. Starch haze differs from chill haze in that it is present regardless of whether the beer is chilled, or at room temperature... Read More

A haze in the finished beer which results from the presence of unconverted starch. Starch haze differs from chill haz..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Starch

Complex branches chain of from 25 to more than 1000 glucose residues. Starch is often used as a general term for all large glucose sugars (amylose, amylopectin, and true starch). This usage is, in strict biochemical terms, incorrect... Read More

Complex branches chain of from 25 to more than 1000 glucose residues. Starch is often used as a general term for all ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Splashing

Aerating wine or beer to release carbon dioxide gas, also known as de-gassing... Read More

Aerating wine or beer to release carbon dioxide gas, also known as de-gassing... Read More

October 25, 2019

Spiles

Small, wooden pegs or plugs, used to close vent holes in barrels... Read More

Small, wooden pegs or plugs, used to close vent holes in barrels... Read More

October 25, 2019

Spigot

A faucet used to regulate the flow of liquids from the bunghole of a barrel... Read More

A faucet used to regulate the flow of liquids from the bunghole of a barrel... Read More

October 25, 2019

Specialty Malts

Malts used in lesser quantities in the mash that are usually used to impart flavor/color/aroma. Most specialty grains do not need to be mashed and can be steeped. View all Brewing Grains.. Read More

Malts used in lesser quantities in the mash that are usually used to impart flavor/color/aroma. Most specialty grains..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Sound Wine

Wine with no obvious defect... Read More

Wine with no obvious defect... Read More

October 25, 2019

Slurry

A thin mixture of water and insoluble solids... Read More

A thin mixture of water and insoluble solids... Read More

October 25, 2019

Silica Gel

A hard, glassy substance made from specially processed silica (sand), which contains microscopic pores. Sometimes used as a beer clarification agent; can also be used as a dessicant (moisture absorber), due to its extreme attraction for water... Read More

A hard, glassy substance made from specially processed silica (sand), which contains microscopic pores. Sometimes use..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Scrumpy

Scrumpy is a term used to describe hard ciders made in West Country in England. It can be used in reference to commercial or homemade hard cider. Scrumpy can be dry or sweet, and is generally higher in alcohol. It is usually cloudy, is served still instead of carbonated, and can be rather pulpy... Read More

Scrumpy is a term used to describe hard ciders made in West Country in England. It can be used in reference to commer..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Scientific name for ale yeast. Top fermenting yeast... Read More

Scientific name for ale yeast. Top fermenting yeast... Read More

October 25, 2019

Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis

Scientic name for lager yeast. Bottom fermenting yeast... Read More

Scientic name for lager yeast. Bottom fermenting yeast... Read More

October 25, 2019

Saccharometer

Any devise for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. A specially calibrated hydrometer... Read More

Any devise for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. A specially calibrated hydrometer... Read More

October 25, 2019

Russian Imperial Stout

A very strong, dark (nearly black), intensely roasty and malty ale. So named becasue it supposedly was originally brewed (in England) for export to Russia... Read More

A very strong, dark (nearly black), intensely roasty and malty ale. So named becasue it supposedly was originally bre..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Roasted Malt

Malt used for coloring purposes... Read More

Malt used for coloring purposes... Read More

October 25, 2019

Respiration

The sum total chemical reactions in living cells which release energy. The aggregate of those processes by which oxygen is introduced into the system and carbon dioxide removed. .. Read More

The sum total chemical reactions in living cells which release energy. The aggregate of those processes by which oxy..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Reinheitsgebot

The Reinheitsgebot (German pronunciation: "Rine-hites-ge-boat", literally "purity order") was an ordinance brought forth by Duke Wilhelm IVan in the city of Ingolstadt in the duchy of Bavaria on April 23, 1516. The ordinance sought to restrict which grains could be used in beer production. The re..... Read More

The Reinheitsgebot (German pronunciation: "Rine-hites-ge-boat", literally "purity order") was an ordinance brought fo..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Rehydration

The process of adding water to dry dormant yeast cells to hydrate the cell walls, and bring the yeast into an active state. Consult yeast manufacturer’s instructions for proper yeast rehydration... Read More

The process of adding water to dry dormant yeast cells to hydrate the cell walls, and bring the yeast into an active ..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Reductive Wines

Wines that are permitted little or no oxygen and are consumed young... Read More

Wines that are permitted little or no oxygen and are consumed young... Read More

October 25, 2019

Raffinose

Trisaccharide composed of one galactose, one glucose and one fructose molecules. Although not a major component of beer wort, raffinose is used to biochemically define lager and ale yeast. Lager yeast completely process raffinose; ale yeast leave a residual G- G sugar, known as melibiose... Read More

Trisaccharide composed of one galactose, one glucose and one fructose molecules. Although not a major component of be..... Read More

October 25, 2019

Rack

Also referred to as "transfer." To move beer from one vessel to another, usually through siphoning... Read More

Also referred to as "transfer." To move beer from one vessel to another, usually through siphoning... Read More